School of linguistics
A.    Tradisional
Words are from Onomatopoetics: Tiruan Bunyi Alam
1.      Root Creation
Direct sound Symbolism
·         Call and Cry: Bahasa berasal dari teriakan
·         Cratylus: /r/, /l/, /g/, /a/, /i, /o/, /n/, /m/ (Plato)
2.      Root Modification
·         Clipping and Shortening
Philosophy basic is to shortening (menyederhanakan)
a.       Aphesis     : loosing front syllable
Example    : defend           → fend
  brandwine     → wine
  history           → story
  example         → sample
b.      Apocope    : loosing front-end syllable, and middle syllable
Example    : magister         → master (mid)
                    market           → tengah (mid)
                    Influenza       → flu (front-end)
c.       Syncope    : loosing end syllable
Example    : Photograph    → Photo
·         Blendings/ Blend
Philosophy basic is to two the opposite meaning and creates new meaning (between both)
1.      Smoke (asap tipis) + Fog (asap tebal) = Smog (asap tidak tebal dan tidak tipis)
2.      Breakfast (sarapan) + Lunch (makan siang) = Brunch (makan diantara sarapan dan makan siang)
·         Acronym
Philosophy basic is to menyingkat kata
1.      movies (movement pictures)
2.      OK (All Correct: pronunciation)
3.      Two Grammatical Process
1.      Combine two words creates one meaning called by compound
2.      Derivational:
Example: geography, geology (geo has not meaning)
B.     Structural
Appears in 19th century by Ferdinand de Saussure (Swiss).
According to Saussure the truth is not always be the truth, it depends on the agreement of each communities
Language is as system of symbol.
Symbol consists of:
1.      Signified / langue (kata/ucapan)
2.      Signifier / Parole (konsep)
3.      Structural Approach
This approach is closely related to the grammar-focused teaching. The Structuralists believed that language is formed from the smallest units of its sound system. Leonard Bloomfield in his book Language, published in 1933, he stated about structuralism. This model of grammar is still influential and worthy of detailed comment. Structuralists began with the premise that each language was unique and must be described in terms of its own individual patterning. Structuralism was text-based and only interested in language that had actually occurred.
Structuralism focuses on the level of language that examines how words combine into larger units. We shall study only three of these units – the phrase, the clause and the sentence.
There are five commonly occurring types of phrase in English:
noun phrases: e.g. the little dog, a young woman, etc.; adjective phrases: e.g.
Extremely old, etc.; verb phrases: e.g. might be closed, etc.; adverb phrases: e.g. very hard, every morning, etc.; preposition phrases: e.g. on foot, by plane, etc. They also study bigger units of words, clauses and sentences. In the implications, teachers attempt to ask students analyze the combining words.
For example:
C.    Transformation
In the 1950s the school of linguistics thought known as transformational-generative grammar (TG) received wide acclaim through the works of Noam Chomsky. Chomsky postulated a syntactic base of language (called deep structure), which consists of a series of phrase-structure rewrite rules, i.e., a series of (possibly universal) rules that generates the underlying phrase-structure of a sentence, and a series of rules (called transformations) that act upon the phrase-structure to form more complex sentences. The end result of a transformational-generative grammar is a surface structure that, after the addition of words and pronunciations, is identical to an actual sentence of a language. All languages have the same deep structure, but they differ from each other in surface structure because of the application of different rules for transformations, pronunciation, and word insertion. Another important distinction made in transformational-generative grammar is the difference between language competence (the subconscious control of a linguistic system) and language performance (the speaker’s actual use of language). Although the first work done in transformational-generative grammar was syntactic, later studies have applied the theory to the phonological and semantic components of language.
A TG model has four main characteristics:
It must attempt to make explicit and generate an infinite set of sentences.
For example, that we have the rules:
S — NP + VP (sentence can be rewritten as noun phrase + verb phrase).
Since the model attempts to describe the ideal speaker-hearer’s linguistic knowledge and intuitions, it must be explicit.
The model must have three components: a phonological component, a syntactic component and a semantic component so that it parallels the speaker’s ability to associate noise and meaning.
It must be able to assign a structure to all sentences which would be accepted by a native speaker and ‘reject all sentences which would be rejected by a native speaker.
The example of transformation is as follow.
Other rule of transformation:
·         Statement is changed to negative and interrogative, question tag
1.      I go to school → I don’t go to school
2.      It is hot, isn’t it?
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