Phonetics
Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that comprises the study of the sounds of human speech. It is concerned with the physical properties of speech sounds (phones): their physiological production, acoustic properties, auditory perception, and neurophysiologic status.
Phonetics is a branch of phonology which studies about:
– how to produce sound
– how to pronounce sound
Organ of Speech
An overview of the vocal tract showing structures that is important in speech sound production and speech articulation
Robert Mannell

The sounds of English

Vowels
A vowel is a specific type of sound, characterized by a lack of full obstruction to the air flow. Vowels can be contrasted with consonants, where there is such an obstruction. As air comes out when you are speaking a consonant, there is a buildup of pressure as the air flow is constricted. When speaking a vowel, there is no built up pressure, the sound is simply shaped by the position of the tongue.
English has twelve vowel sounds. In the table above they are divided into seven short and five long vowels. An alternative way of organizing them is according to where (in the mouth) they are produced. This method allows us to describe them as front, central and back. We can qualify them further by how high the tongue and lower jaw are when we make these vowel sounds, and by whether our lips are rounded or spread, and finally by whether they are short or long. This scheme shows the following arrangement:
Front vowels
  • /i:/ – cream, seen (long high front spread vowel)
  • /ɪ/ – bit, silly (short high front spread vowel)
  • /ɛ/ – bet, head (short mid front spread vowel); this may also be shown by the symbol /e/
  • /æ/ – cat, dad (short low front spread vowel); this may also be shown by /a/

Central vowels

  • /ɜ:/- burn, firm (long mid central spread vowel); this may also be shown by the symbol /ə:/.
  • /ə/ – about, clever (short mid central spread vowel); this is sometimes known as schwa, or the neutral vowel sound – it never occurs in a stressed position.
  • /ʌ/ – cut, nut (short low front spread vowel); this vowel is quite uncommon among speakers in the Midlands and further north in Britain.
Back vowels
  • /u:/ – boob, glue (long high back rounded vowel)
  • /ʊ/ – put, soot (short high back rounded vowel); also shown by /u/
  • /ɔ:/ – corn, faun (long mid back rounded vowel) also shown by /o:/
  • /ɒ/- dog, rotten (short low back rounded vowel) also shown by /o/
  • /ɑ:/ – hard, far (long low back spread vowel)

We can also arrange the vowels in a table or even depict them against a cross-section of the human mouth. Here is an example of a simple table:

Front
Central
Back
High
ɪ    i:
ʊ    u:
Mid
ɛ
ə    ɜ:
ɔ:
Low
æ
ʌ
ɒ    ɑ:

Diphthongs

Diphthongs are types of vowels where two vowel sounds are connected in a continuous, gliding motion. They are often referred to as gliding vowels. Most languages have a number of diphthongs, although that number varies widely, from only one or two to fifteen or more.
Diphthong
centring
closing
ending in ǝ
ending in i
ending in ʊ
sound
word
phonetic
sound
word
phonetic
sound
word
phonetic
near
/niǝ(r)/
ei
page
/peidӡ/
ǝʊ
home
/hǝʊm/
hair
/heǝ(r)/
ai
five
/faiv/
now
/naʊ/
ʊǝ
pure
/pjʊǝ(r)/
ͻi
join
/dӡͻi/
Triphthong
In phonetics, a triphthong is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement of the articulator from one vowel quality to another that passes over a third. While “pure” vowels, or monophthongs, are said to have one target articulator position, diphthongs have two, and triphthongs three.
No
sound
word
Phonetic
1
eiǝ
player
/pleiǝ(r)/
2
aiǝ
fire
/faiǝ(r)/
3
ͻiǝ
loyal
/lͻiǝ(r)/
4
ǝʊǝ
mower
/mǝʊǝ(r)/
5
aʊǝ
hour
/ aʊǝ(r)/
Chart of English Consonant Phonemes
Place of Articulation
Manner of Articulation
Bilabial
Labiodental
Dental
Alveolar
Palato-Alveolar
Palatal
Velar
Glotal
Plosive
p b
t d
k g
Fricative
f v
 θ ð
s z
ʃ ӡ
h
Affricative
tʃ  dӡ
Nasal
m
n
ɳ
Lateral
l
Approximant
w
r
j
Note    : voiced (bergetar saat diucapkan: b, d, g, v, ð, z, ӡ, )
  Voiceless (tidak bergetar saat diucapkan )

sumber : Bunda Kindi