Language and Linguistics:
1.      Definition Linguistics is a science which studies about language
Ilmu murni dalam Linguistik:
I.              Phonology
a.              Phonetics
b.             Phonemics
II.           Morphology
a.              Morphs/Morpheme –> Morphemics
b.             Words (Formation & Construction)
III.        Syntax –> Sentence
IV.        Semantics –> meaning(s)
2.      Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication’. Ronald Wardhaugh (1972:3)
Stated that based on the definition the key term in the above definition is ‘system’. Each language contains two systems: a system of sounds and a system of meaning.
Beside system, it is also said that language is ‘arbitrary’. It means that we cannot predict exactly which specific features we will find in a particular language if we are unfamiliar with that language or with a related language.
The term ‘vocal’ refers to the fact that the primary medium of language is sound, and it is sound for all languages, no matter how well developed are the writing systems.
The term ‘symbol’ refers to the fact that there is no connection between the sounds that people use and the objects to which those sounds refer.
Human language is related to the term ‘communication’. It means that language is used for communication. Kiat Boey Lim (1975:1) also agrees that language is used for communication, and it is made up of sounds. He also add another feature of human language: productive or creative: refers to the ability of native speakers to understand and produce any number of sentences (even though those which they have never heard before) in their mother tongue.
The other way to communicate is using gesture. The role of gesture is less obvious. Among the deaf, of course, it may replace speech as the principle form of communication; but for most people it is an important supplement to speech. The term gesture includes all human communication that involves waving of the hands, facial signals, grunts, and other vocalizations that do not make up words. The gesture is frequently called body language. Gesture could be various manipulations of the environment that have communicative intent such as smoke signals. Gesture was basic to the development of human communication and that it is still much used.
Language appears because of ??????
1.      Social pressure theory (Adam Smith-1900)
2.      Language appears because every items is sounded
3.      Language appears because of heart pressure
4.      Every human has feeling (Marks Muller)
Speech sounds are sounds which are produced by the human vocal organs of speech.
Elements of language:
1. sounds –> phonology
2. Grammar –> rules patterns –> morphology & syntax
3. Meaning –> vocabulary –> semantics
Characteristics of language:
1. sounds (vocal)
Language is sounds basically
2. arbitrary
The native speaker of the language agree to accept them (terms/symbols/meaning)
3. conventional/agreement
There is no reason, but agreement.
4. systematic
with limited (finite) rule can produce unlimited (infinite) number of sentences
ex. S + V + O + Adv
I saw him
He has bought a book
5. a system of systems
rule –> sounds
rule –> morphemes/words
rule –> phrases
rule –> clauses
rule –> sentences
rule –> paragraphs
rule –> …. (story)
ex. My twin beautiful sisters Elly and Emy work at the same office in the center of the city.
My beautiful and younger sister studies English in the USA.
6. creative/productive
– can express, everything
– can be used to express many ideas
– can say about future
– can tell something that doesn’t exist yet
– can produce unlimited sentences

7. a social phenomenon

8. meaningful
lexical, structural, cultural (overall)

9. habit/recursion
– daily use
– daily spoken
– trained
– drilled

10. Unique

11 social behaviour (social phenomenom)
language is used by society

12. relative (equally complex)
There are no languages which are better than others.
Each language is good for its own society (native speakers)
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